Chemical elements
  Lithium
    Isotopes
    Energy
    Production
    Application
    Physical Properties
    Chemical Properties
      Lithium hydride
      Lithium chloride
      Lithium bromide
      Lithium iodide
      Lithium iodide tetrachloride
      Lithium hypochlorite
      Lithium chlorate
      Lithium perchlorate
      Lithium bromate
      Lithium iodate
      Lithium periodates
      Lithium monoxide
      Lithium peroxide
      Lithium hydroxide
      Lithium monosulphide
      Lithium polysulphides
      Lithium sulphite
      Lithium sulphate
      Lithium persulphate
      Lithium thiosulphate
      Lithium dithionate
      Lithium selenide
      Lithium selenite
      Lithium selenate
      Lithium chromate
      Lithium permanganate
      Lithium molybdates
      Lithium nitride
      Lithium hydrazoate
      Lithamide
      Lithium nitrite
      Lithium nitrate
      Lithium phosphide
      Lithium orthophosphate
      Lithium pyrophosphate
      Lithium metaphosphate
      Lithium arsenide
      Lithium meta-arsenite
      Lithium arsenate
      Lithium antimonide
      Lithium antimonate
      Lithium carbide
      Lithium carbonate
      Lithium percarbonate
      Lithium cyanide
      Lithium thiocyanate
      Lithium silicide
      Lithium silicates
      Lithium borates

Lithium hydroxide, LiOH






The Lithium hydroxide, LiOH can be prepared from the metal or monoxide by the action of water, or by the interaction of aqueous solutions of barium hydroxide and lithium sulphate. It crystallizes from solution as the hydrate LiOH,H2O, which is converted into the anhydrous substance by heat. The rtionohydrate boils at 181° C. de Forcrand has described several other hydrates.

Lithium hydroxide is a white, crystalline substance, melting unchanged at 445° C. At 780° C. it is converted into the monoxide. Its dissociation-pressure has been investigated by Johnston. The hydroxide is strongly basic, in this and other respects resembling the corresponding derivatives of sodium and potassium. It dissolves in water with evolution of heat, and is somewhat hygroscopic. Its heat of neutralization in dilute solution by hydrochloric acid is given by Thomsen as 13.85 Cal.

Various investigators have studied the properties of lithium hydroxide in dilute solution. The heat of formation of the hydroxide in dilute aqueous solution from the metal and water is 53.2 Cal.; that from its elements and water is given by the equation

[Li]+(O)+(H) + Aq. =LiOH,Aq. + 121.5 Cal.

Since the heat of solution of the hydroxide is 4.5 Cal., the expression for the heat of formation becomes

[Li]+(O)+(H)=[LiOH] + 117.0 Cal.

For the action of water on the monoxide the heat of formation of the solid hydroxide is given by the equation

[Li2O] +H2O =2[LiOH]+22.2 Cal.

The heat of neutralization of the hydroxide by mineral acids has been investigated by Richards and Rowe.


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