Chemical elements
  Lithium
    Isotopes
    Energy
    Production
    Application
    Physical Properties
    Chemical Properties
      Lithium hydride
      Lithium chloride
      Lithium bromide
      Lithium iodide
      Lithium iodide tetrachloride
      Lithium hypochlorite
      Lithium chlorate
      Lithium perchlorate
      Lithium bromate
      Lithium iodate
      Lithium periodates
      Lithium monoxide
      Lithium peroxide
      Lithium hydroxide
      Lithium monosulphide
      Lithium polysulphides
      Lithium sulphite
      Lithium sulphate
      Lithium persulphate
      Lithium thiosulphate
      Lithium dithionate
      Lithium selenide
      Lithium selenite
      Lithium selenate
      Lithium chromate
      Lithium permanganate
      Lithium molybdates
      Lithium nitride
      Lithium hydrazoate
      Lithamide
      Lithium nitrite
      Lithium nitrate
      Lithium phosphide
      Lithium orthophosphate
      Lithium pyrophosphate
      Lithium metaphosphate
      Lithium arsenide
      Lithium meta-arsenite
      Lithium arsenate
      Lithium antimonide
      Lithium antimonate
      Lithium carbide
      Lithium carbonate
      Lithium percarbonate
      Lithium cyanide
      Lithium thiocyanate
      Lithium silicide
      Lithium silicates
      Lithium borates

Lithium nitrate, LiNO3






Evaporation of an aqueous solution of nitric acid neutralized by lithium carbonate yields at ordinary temperatures deliquescent needles of the trihydrate, LiNO3,3H2O; at 30° C. the semihydrate, 2LiNO3,H2O; and at 90° C. the very deliquescent anhydrous salt, LiNO3, melting-point 253° C., D4=2.366. Lithium nitrate is very soluble in water, readily yielding supersaturated solutions. At 19.05° C. 100 grams of saturated solution contain 40.4 grams, and at 70.9° C. 66.1 grams. Donnan and Burt have plotted a solubility-curve, which indicates the transition-temperature of the trihydrate into the semihydrate to be about 29.9° C. (C), and that of the semihydrate into the anhydrous salt to be about 61° C.(D). The boiling-point of a saturated aqueous solution in contact with the solid is above 200° C.

LiNO3 solubility
Solubility curve of lithium nitrate (LiNO3).
References to other investigations of the properties of dilute solutions of the nitrate are appended.

The heat of formation of lithium nitrate in dilute solution is given by the equation

[Li] + (N)+3(O) +Aq. =LiNO3, Aq. + 116.1 Cal.

Its heat of solution is only 0.3 Cal., a phenomenon probably due to the formation of hydrates. It follows that the heat of formation of the anhydrous salt from its elements is given by

[Li]+(N)+3(O)=[LiNO3] + 115.8 Cal.

The heat of solution in alcohol is 4.66 Cal.

With ammonia in absence of water lithium nitrate forms a liquid characterized by its lack of action on machine-steel, iron-wire, or nichrome-wire after contact for several months. It has been suggested that the addition of a small percentage of water would render the liquid a good absorbent for the removal of ammonia from mixtures of the gas with nitrogen and with hydrogen.

The molecular electric conductivity of lithium nitrate between 272° and 440.6° C. is given by the formula

μt = 41.14 – 0.238(t – 300).

Lithium nitrate resembles the chloride in the non-formation of isomorphous mixed crystals with the corresponding sodium salt.


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